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Electronics Projects

HomeMade PCB Manufacturing

HomeMade PCB project, written and developed by Luca_004. Hi guys, in this article I will present the creation and manufacture of a homemade printed circuit board (PCB) with the simplest items at home. HomeMade PCB Tutorial Step 1: Create a Layout With the program of your choice you create a layout for a single-sided circuit […]

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Electronics Projects

Magic Eye: Emulation with Arduino

“Magic Eye” emulation project written and developed by Konstantin Dorohov (USA). The recorders and receivers of my youth used the now defunct tube level indicators or “magic eye” on 6E1P or 6E5C lamps. Now is the time for nostalgia for the “old days” and you can buy assembled indicators on aliexpress or amazon. They are […]

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Signals and Systems

Group Velocity: Mathematical Proof

The term group velocity defines the rate at which the envelope of a signal propagates in a transmission medium. This signal transmitted over the medium is obtained when a modulating signal modulates a central frequency, typically called the carrier [1]. As a result, the modulating signal and the envelope are equivalent. While the envelope propagates […]

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Signals and Systems

Frequency Constant Phase Shift and Distortion

Transmission media and electronic components can have multiple effects on the signals propagating through them [1] [2]. To avoid phase distortion, it is necessary that the phase of the system, the phase shift introduced by the medium, is linear with frequency. This case, whose effect consists of a time delay of the signal, is often […]

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Signals and Systems

The Mathematics of Linear Distortion

The mathematics of linear distortion only applies to linear and time invariant systems [1] [2]. Therefore, these systems and their translation to the frequency domain, where the mathematical analysis is simplified, are briefly summarized. Then it is discussed how the presented theory can be applied to real transmission media and/or electronic components. Finally, the mathematics […]

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Basic Electronics

Semiconductor Industry

Semiconductors are materials that can behave as conductors or insulators depending on the environmental conditions. They are very relevant materials since they are the basis for the emergence and development of modern electronics (the transistor) and for the manufacture of integrated circuits. Hence the importance of the semiconductor industry. Semiconductor Industry Applications Today, electronics is […]

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Bitcoin Objective Value Caculation

1. Introduction Bitcoin objective value is difficult to establish. Actually, like so many other questions in economics, it depends on the perspective from which it is calculated. Therefore, estimates can be found that treasure very different values ​​for bitcoin, from zero to millions of dollars. Likewise, the calculation method used in this article simply reflects […]

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Basic Electronics

Analog and Digital Electronics: Differences

This text explains, compares and shows the main differences between analog and digital electronics [1] [2]. On the one hand, analog electronics use continuous signals, where any value is possible. However, digital electronics are based on binary signals, where only two possible states are allowed. The contrast between the two worlds is obvious, and is […]

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Basic Electronics

Electronics Design Specializations

The electronics industry employs millions of workers in the world. But it is only a select group of them, the electronic design engineers, who conceive the devices that are manufactured. The different specialties of electronics give rise to the corresponding electronics design specializations. And, consequently, these electronics design specializations give rise to the corresponding electronics […]

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Individualize Central Heating

This text explains how to individualize a central heating system by using heat cost allocators. This technique is discouraged since the author of this text has verified in her own installation that the disadvantages are much higher than the practically non-existent advantages. 1. Central Heating “Central heating” is understood as the technique in which a […]