Based on the previous definition, and evolving from the lowest to the highest level, the specializations that make up electronics can be classified as shown in Table 1. Some of the concepts may not be understood by the reader, but they will be revealed as the text progresses.
Flow of Charges
vx : voltage at circuital node x
ix : current at branch x
( “1” , “0” ) <=> ( vx , ix )
Analog to Digital Conversion
Digital to Analog Conversion
Digital Circuits (Boolean)
Table 1: Relationship between physical manifestations and electronic specialties.
In practice, the implementation of any solution usually requires the involvement of several of the specialties shown, so that they are all interrelated and the conceptual border between them is often diffuse. Furthermore, solving complex problems, such as in (tele) communications, requires the application of other specialties apart from the purely electronic ones, such as the mathematics of communications and signal processing.
The aforementioned specialties are explained individually below, building progressively, from a low to a high level of abstraction with respect to the electron. In all sections, special emphasis will be placed on the concepts that sound the most on a daily basis, especially for technology fans, and that are typically not fully understood by the general public.